.Davis Typewriter Works

.Davis Typewriter Works

Friday, March 25, 2016

Typewriter Type

A recent discussion on one of the many online typewriter forums has triggered a quick but careful look into some manufacturer (and other) materials in order to obtain the best and most accurate view of what the industry actually used as terminology when referring to the type on a typewriter; this paper, published on the Davis Typewriter Works blog, is the result.

The aforementioned discussion centered primarily around the various different styles of print which were available from the manufacturers.

Without looking at any materials, those familiar with typewriters can probably easily define the term "type."  "Type" is a component of a typewriting machine that presses upon the ribbon (in a ribbon typewriter) or directly on the paper (in a direct inking typewriter) to make the desired final impression.  Type may be driven to the printing point in any number of ways.  The type may be manufactured as many small, unique components for a typewriter, each mounted on one instrument used to drive it to the print point or in some special designs all the characters may be mounted on one single unit such as a cylinder shaped component, a sleeve, a half-circular component, or others.  In a very few typewriters (such as the Merritt) the type are not firmly mounted at all, but lie in a tray and are motivated individually when required.

Collectors and technicians all use this term generally, and frequently.  For example; "If you're not careful and you keep typing unevenly and clashing type bars together you might damage the type."  Or, "Once a week the typist must clean the type thoroughly with one of the approved cleaning preparations listed in the back of this manual."

----

The problem in terminology for modern collectors has arisen because the tendency for people today is to use a word such as "font" in describing the varied kinds of print shapes and forms available.. which was never in general use at all regarding typewriters.  The term DID appear late in the era, but in a very special application that we'll see later.  For the rest of the time, and rest of the universe, no typewriter materials (be it from the sales or the manufacturing standpoint) use the term "font."  We must then support the use of the proper terms by evidence in the literature, as it is our purpose not to invent a history that did not exist but instead to properly represent the one that did - a process only possible through taking time to come into possession of the facts.

To this end, I conducted a study of the literature at hand and will detail the results below.

1.  Century of the Typewriter, Wilfred Beeching (1990 edition.)  This book, nominally for collectors, is a rich and detailed account written by someone actually in the business.  Thus, it is likely to contain accurate information - particularly where direct involvement of the manufacturers is in evidence.  It is the only "collector book" that details the vagaries of printing styles.

This book has a section "Type and Type Styles" beginning p. 78.  This section uses the term "type" in a general fashion as defined earlier in this paper.  When the section begins to display the varied forms of final print that were optionally available the header is "Range of typefaces."  This brings up the most commonly used term to describe the varied final forms of print - "type face" or else "typeface" as one word.

The term "type face" is in fact also that term which this writer personally has heard all typewriter mechanics and dealers use in describing the varied styles and sizes optionally available on typewriters.

There is some hint in Beeching's book that the author is employing the unified term "typeface" to refer to style, and "type face" to refer to that portion of the type facing the print point, into which are cast (or onto which are machined) the actual characters used to make the impressions; in other words, "type face" being the face of the type.

2.  Dealer materials

The Royal Line Book and the Olivetti-Underwood Dealer Guide were consulted to obtain the terms used to offer varied print forms to the customers.  The leading pages of both manuals are shown below.



Both of these early - mid 1960's manuals use the term "type style" to differentiate between the varied forms of print available.  Note that the Royal Line Book shows them, but that the Olivetti-Underwood would require a separate stand-alone guide (Smith-Corona materials were also printed this way.)

3.  Manufacturer materials

The trade catalog for a typewriter with large interchangeable units was consulted first.  This catalog is for the Reliance Visible, which incorporated an entire "action unit" of sorts that contained the key levers, type bars and thus of course the type.  Different styles were available as were different language keyboards.  The page to describe these interchangeable action units (interchangeable ONLY on machines of the same pitch, or that is to say which typed the same number of characters per inch) is reproduced below.


Again, we can see the general application of the term "type" in this document, as can we also see the use of the word "style" in reference to the varied forms of print available.

Another early typewriter on which the type were more or less removable as a unit (but without any of the mechanism of the typewriter coming with it) was the Hammond.  A Hammond Multiplex instruction manual is in our collection - a photocopy provided by Peter Weil some years ago.  In this document the familiar half-round elements which carry the characters to be printed are described under the dual heading "The Type Shuttle or Type Plate."  Throughout the rest of the document however the term "type shuttle" appears exclusively.  For optional type shuttles the reader is directed to the "Type Catalog."  A contemporary advertisement, also from Weil, provided at the same time uses the term "styles of type" to discern the varied forms of print available.  Thus, even with the added nonstandard terms the company still used the word "style" as one would expect, given the previous materials.

We will read again about the Hammond and its descendant shortly.



4.  PRINT

"Print - The Magazine of the Graphic Arts" produced a special technical and historical issue devoted entirely to typewriter type in June 1952 (Print, Volume 7, Number 3.)  This document was written directly with industry input.

First, in its whole this publication supports and uses the general term "type" as described earlier.  The term appears over a dozen times used generally in this way in various sections of the publication.  

Attention is called to the "Special Uses" section on page 30:


Once again, as with the Royal Line Book above (and of course many others) we see an assortment of varied forms of print, but in this case instead of being termed wholly as "type style" this publication throughout uses the term "type face."  In point of fact, in the detailed section on the manufacture of typewriter type and the actual creation of the type itself the term "type face" also appears when describing the formation of the characters on the type itself.

•••

FINDINGS.

In general use, the terms "type face" (or, "typeface") and "type style" appear synonymous.  Both "type face" and "type style" are used to describe the varied different forms that the final print can assume.  This is fixed on a normal typewriter; is changeable on a typewriter whose printing instrumentalities are such that the type, whether with or without considerable part of the mechanism, can be removed or interchanged.  (Again, while typeface / type style are changeable on such machines, normally pitch or characters-per-inch is not.)

Actual dealers and mechanics, as well as Beeching and the special issue of PRINT have displayed use of the term "type face" / "typeface" in description of the varied available print forms.  The dealer and manufacturer materials shown above have used the term "type style."  

It seems entirely likely, sifting and analyzing the materials, that the actual, proper term for the varied optional shapes and forms of final printed characters should be "type styles."  The term "type face" or "typeface" is a common, more comfortable or familiar type of term that may well be a simple and later-on widely established misuse of the proper term "type face" referring to the face of the type, given that it is used, it would appear, more by dealers and not the makers.  It is clear from the literature however that even if originally technically incorrect the term "type face" or "typeface" as a synonym for "type style" came into general use in the era of the typewriter.  In other words, if one said to a dealer or mechanic "I was wondering if I could change the typeface on this machine" instead of saying "I was wondering if I could change the type style on this machine," one would be just as easily and immediately understood.

Speaking specifically about the design, fabrication, cleaning or even damaging of that part of the type on which the actual printing characters are cast or embossed, the term "type face" is used as a short hand for "the face of the type."  

(It should be mentioned here that the well known industry term for the type, manufactured for a conventional typewriter and normally soldered onto the type bars, is "type slug" for each individual component of the type.  Thus, the "type face" is the platen-facing portion of a type slug.)

It is reasonably established, thus, that the varied styles of print are referred to either as "type styles" or as "typefaces" / "type faces", in the interest of historical accuracy; the former probably being the correct 'inside' industry term and the second a popular colloquialization or misappropriation of another term that took hold and spread widely in the business.

•••

Addendum 1: The term "Font," its use and misuse.

It has been pointed out by Brian Brumfield that the Vari-Typer, a somewhat convoluted descendant of the Hammond mentioned above, used the term "font" for describing what we see above as typeface or type style.  This is mentioned also in the PRINT magazine, which clearly describes the use of the term "font" specifically in relation to what formerly had been called a type shuttle.  This is a specific and unusual occurrence, and as we can see the term has been found nowhere else in the literature so far in reference to another machine.  Thus, it is true that the term "font" would be correct in referring to the changeable type in a Vari-Typer, but is a historic inaccuracy if applied to any other older machine (and of course to most newer ones.)  The term "font" appears nowhere in the magazine other than in reference to the Vari-Typer.  

[The progression, for purpose of explanation, from the earlier to the later brands is as follows:

The Hammond concern's patents were willed to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1913 when the original inventor, J. C. Hammond, died.  According to PRINT's short history the machine's rights and the patents were bought from the Metropolitan (no date given) by the Frederick Hepburn Company which is the concern that renamed the machine "The Vari-Typer."  This company went bankrupt and was bought out in 1933 by a group of investors headed by Ralph C. Coxhead.  The redesigned machine (now with a metal type font instead of Bakelite) and with some 3000 changes overall was re-introduced to the market under the same brand name in 1937.  The concern's growth was slow until, the magazine reports, a strike at Chicago newspapers started in 1947.  Reportedly "Until the strike's end two years later" the people of Chicago read newspapers set up on the Vari-Typer, which became known to the industry and pushed the machine to the later heights of "Cold type" printing.  It could be easily surmised that the wide use of the term "font" in place of what had been the term "type style" during the typewriter era came up during the age of the dominance of the Vari-Typer in printing.]

The use of the term "font" applies to computers today, and essentially is duplicative of the Vari-Typer in that the operator can change the whole printing appearance at once.  The term "font" appears nowhere else in reference to conventional typewriters or typewriters with interchangeable units in the literature, and thus is misapplied and perhaps even anachronistic (given the dates above) when used to describe type style on the wide range of conventionally manufactured typewriters.
 
DAVIS TYPEWRITER WORKS  3/25/2016




Wednesday, January 20, 2016

Rebuilt Typewriters by Mail Order - An Unknown Seller

One of the more interesting items in my collection is a pair of sheets cut from a small (4.75" by 7.5") catalog which appears to have been a mail order catalog.  Three of the four sides of these two sheets contain advertisements for a special offering of rebuilt typewriters.

The original issuer of the catalog is unknown.  Conversation with Peter Weil produces no evidence from the pages which might give away the original catalog's publisher.

The date of the pages is certainly after about 1926, because the pages offer the Underwood Standard Four Bank Portable either brand new or rebuilt.  Indeed, it might be that 1927-1928 would be a good first guess for these.

We'll now show the pages, which are not numbered, in the order in which they most probably appeared in the catalog -- and then make some further commentary about the offerings. Click to enlarge the three images (separately.)


Not shown is the reverse of one of these pages, which advertises on its upper half a Ouija Board, and on its lower half a boxed selection of silk fabric scraps, for quilting or dressmaking.  These items have mail order numbers and a price by each.  

The first page makes it clear that these machines are not sold on credit, and thus there is no machination required to protect against losing machines sent without full payment. Keeping in mind the date of this catalog is thought to be 1927-1929, let's look at the machines available.

Page 1

Underwood No. 4 and No. 5:  These machines were in production at the time, but note that machines without backspace or two-color ribbon are available - these date to pre-1909.

L. C. Smith:  The No. 2 appeared in 1904 and was superseded by the No. 5 in 1911.  The No. 5 was built through 1923, while the No. 8 was built from 1915 on, although the open frame tells us the machines are pre-1928 or so.

Page 2

The Oliver No. 3 was made from 1898 to 1907, while the No. 9 was introduced in 1916.

Corona - this model is the widened frame type with right and left shift keys dating from later than 1922.

Smith Premier No. 2 -- this is an old machine too, dating from 1896 to 1914.  This is an extreme bargain at just $15.00 when one considers prices for new machines at that time.  

Monarch No. 3 -- Made from 1906 through 1914.

Noiseless -- This is the No. 5, introduced in 1922.  

Remington portable -- This machine dates back as far as 1920, and the note here is the relatively high price for a rebuilt portable. 

Page 3

Remington No. 10 and 11 -- The No. 10 is of course the first Remington visible, introduced 1908 and made through 1923; the No. 11 was made 1910-1926.

Royal Standard, No. 5, and No. 10 --  The Royal Standard was the very first Royal, introduced 1906; the No. 5 appeared in 1910 and the No. 10 in 1914.  

Underwood portable -- this is the four bank Underwood portable introduced 1926.  This is the newest typewriter in the catalog, at least in terms of initial release date.  

Smith Premier No. 10 -- this was the only standard visible Smith Premier, and it was made 1908 through 1921.

-----

As we can see, while there are some typewriters in this offering that could include fairly new examples (the L.C. Smith No. 8 and the Underwood machines specifically, as well as the Underwood portable) most of the machines offered stood a chance of being quite old.  For a price comparison, keep in mind that new machines were still between $100 and $110 for the standard models (more for wide carriage) and that portables were still between $50 and $60 generally (note that the Underwood Four Bank is being sold at its going rate new, and cut rate rebuilt).  Here are the machines offered in the ad, in order of price, for comparison with these then-new prices.  All rebuilt except the first.


Price Dynamics and Market Interactions

Taking a look now at the prices offered by whoever this was, we see the general mark of the rebuilt typewriter industry in that the latest available rebuilt models are roughly half the price of brand new typewriters.  Older models are still available, even examples that might be 20 or 30 years old, but are available at very deep discounts.

The companies that rebuilt typewriters put out ads offering to buy used typewriters- one of many ways they obtained machines.  Harry A. Smith advertised that he was interested in used typewriters "in lots from 10 to 100."  It is our guess that the prices these companies offered for used machines were at least as good as, if not better than, the trade-in value that might be obtained on the machines if they were traded against new ones.  This would be particularly true for a machine not being traded in on its original make (for example an Oliver being traded in on a Remington.)  Since the trade-in values were lower for non-same-brand makes it might well have made sense for an office manager to sell his office stock of machines to a rebuilder and get cash he could use to better discount brand new machines.  Or, if he wished to save even more money he could then turn around and buy rebuilt machines (we are aware of no trade-in allowance on rebuilt machines.)

The fact that these machines were, we suspect, purchased at or above the normal trade value on the market, and then sold being rebuilt at half the general price for new machines, points up the narrow margins on which this business model operated.  It also suggests why this particular seller has opted not to allow credit sales and is going for "cash only," considering that the country had pulled out of a bad recession in the early 1920's (although far worse was to come shortly.)


Above -- The Smith Premier No. 2 and the Oliver No. 3 both dated from the 1890's and were thoroughly obsolescent by the time this catalog was issued.  However, at roughly 15% of the price of a new standard machine these could have been attractive buys for the occasional user not interested in the latest features.  Will Davis / Davis Bros. collections.

Another purchaser at this time that we might imagine would be someone who needed to type at home, or perhaps in a local club or church -- say, for typing schedules or recipes, club notes or so forth.  Brand new portables were $50 or $60 at this time -- but as you can see from the price list a very solidly built, heavy standard typewriter could be had anywhere from $48.00 for a recent model down to just $15.00 for a totally outdated machine which would still have been completely adequate for many tasks such as suggested here.  This wide range of prices kept thoroughly outdated standard typewriters in circulation probably far longer than they would otherwise have been used or even considered.  It is not impossible that some standard machines were rebuilt twice, or perhaps three times, by professional outfits or dealers, given some of the age ranges we see in this advertisement.

For much more on rebuilt typewriters, see our original reference article on them here.  This article adds to the information base on rebuilt typewriters, the rebuilding business and its history; others are to follow in this series which will be cross linked.

January 20, 2016



Wednesday, August 26, 2015

Fox Portable Typewriters and the Demise of Fox Typewriter Company


The previous post on this blog (which can be found here) concerned the history of the $100, standard Fox Visible series of typewriters as seen above -- which are the Fox machines most commonly found today by collectors and which are the best known.  The company added portable typewriters to its lineup rather late in its history, however, and the entire period in which they were made was, for Fox Typewriter Company specifically and for many parts of the world generally a time of turmoil.  This article will explore the histories of the portable Fox machines and the demise of the company overall, as they are inextricably intertwined.  The story starts, though, well before introduction of any Fox portables.

1915 - The Winds of Change

It has been written in the now well-known 1922/23 Typewriter Topics compendium of typewriter histories that the Fox Typewriter Co. plant in Grand Rapids, Michigan partly closed down at the outbreak of war, and became from that point an unpredictable element in typewriter production.

In point of fact William R. Fox himself in 1915 sold out his interest in the Fox Typewriter Co., and in July 1915 a special shareholders' meeting was held in order to ask for a 60 day option on launching an entirely new corporation to take over the assets of the old, without taking on the debt -- in other words, a reorganization.  This was made good on July 19, 1915.  The factory was idled to a large extent the last quarter or half of 1915 according to contemporary reports.

Later, the Fox Typewriter Company's sales manager, Irving Franks, was quoted in Typewriter Topics as having said that a reorganization and recapitalization of the concern was needed in order to be able to manufacture the Fox machine (at this point still only a standard typewriter) in quantities large enough that the unit price would be competitive.  Put simply, the original firm had gone broke.  (The previous article discussed the complexity and cost-to-build of the Fox visible.)

By all accounts production of the standard machine resumed after the reorganization and in fact increased, at least for some time.  However, in October 1916 a report leaked in Typewriter Topics that Fox Typewriter Co. would be coming out with a portable typewriter.  This was the first US typewriter manufacturer to announce having, in house, a standard and a portable typewriter.


The Baby Fox Appears - Eventually

In February 1917 Fox Typewriter Co. announced that sales records were made during the last quarter of 1916, and that it was installing "thousands of dollars worth" of new machinery at its plant.  This might have been taken to mean equipment for the standard, but in fact it was probably equipment for making the new portable typewriter.

In April of 1917 an initial announcement of the Fox Portable Typewriter was made, which stated the machine would weigh but four and a half pounds.

By November 1917 the first real advertisements appeared for this machine; the stated weight was now 5-3/4 pounds, with a height of three inches when stowed.  Fox had chosen to make a machine that collapsed for travel - not conceptually unlike the popular Corona, which did not collapse, but rather folded.  The new machine would sell at $50.


Fox Portable No. 1 in Detail


The original Fox portable, marketed initially as "The Baby Fox," was designed by Henry P. Nordmark so that its carriage pushed down behind the typewriter when the machine was to be stowed for use, as seen above in a patent drawing.


Above, Fox Portable No. 1 serial 421, courtesy Jim Dax.   The compact nature of the new portable is immediately obvious in our look at a very early example.  Note that the marketing for the machine was using the name "Baby Fox," but that this does not appear on the machine anywhere.


Above - Two variations on the 1917 advertisement image developed for this machine, incorporating a juvenile Fox.  (Business Equipment Topics, 1917.)


This is our Fox Portable No. 1, serial 1364, as positioned in the carrying case with the carriage collapsed behind the machine for travel.


Here is the same typewriter with the carriage raised for use.  The Fox Portable No. 1 is a three bank, double shift machine with 28 keys typing 84 characters.  Shift keys are provided on the left side only, with a small shift lock key above them.  A backspace key is on the right side of the keyboard.  This machine incorporates segment shift, and a modern slotted segment design.


The pen in this photo is being used to indicate the hinge point for the type segment mounting, which of course must move up and down to shift.  The shift keys are actually both mounted on the same tuning fork shaped lever extension, which is hinged at the base where it connects to the shaft.  When the CAP key is depressed this fork rotates slightly forward, pulling a reach rod under the FIG key that engages a travel stop, limiting the shift motion.  When the FIG key is depressed however the reach rod is not moved and the motion of the shift is then only limited by ultimate travel stops.


Both sides of the machine mount mirror image hardware for supporting the carriage, which is easily raised and lowered and which locks in place through use of the slot and cam arrangement clearly seen in this view of the left side of the typewriter.

The machine has a three position ribbon selector below the print point, carriage release on the right side of the carriage only, and variable line spacing.  The type action was intended to be quickly removed (after undoing two screws.)

In operation we found the key lever and type bar action of the Fox No. 1 portable very light, with extremely rapid return of the type bars to rest.  A machine of this model in original condition fully lubricated and properly adjusted would have been a fine, fast typewriter indeed - better than a Corona 3 in our estimation.  Everything on the machine is well designed and solid, and there are no "bells and whistles" or items added as an afterthought.


Above, decal found inside the lid of our Fox Portable No. 1 which appears to be the normal logo for the company (not the "Baby Fox" logo) and which is shown here for comparison.


The Trouble Begins

Even though Fox Typewriter Co. announced in November 1917 that through assignment of an agency for South America it had sold (or was prepared to sell) 6,000 standard and 10,000 portable typewriters, the company suffered a serious blow when its long serving General Sales Manager, Irving Franks (who was credited in trade journals with having brought the company back from the brink) not only resigned his position but sold all his interest in the company.  This is not exactly a glowing assessment of the company's future, coming from a man in a position to be able to predict or shape it to some degree.

The next month the company announced it had increased its capitalization from $100,000 to $250,000, with issuance of stock entirely purchased by the existing shareholders.  By May 1918 the capitalization had further been increased to $450,000; the company announced in Typewriter Topics that it was attempting to "build up production" of the portable typewriter.

In July 1919 the storm hit.  Corona Typewriter Company filed suit against Fox Typewriter Co., claiming both infringement of multiple patents held or controlled by them, and unfair competition.  In some of the complaints certain specific parts or functions of the Fox Portable were called out, while in other complaints the matter was more of form or appearance (Corona attempting in one to claim that the general shape of the front of its machine was essentially proprietary.)  This action began a drawn out process that would span about three years.


Fox Portable No. 2

Fox Typewriter Co. advertisements begin to show what is known as the Fox Portable No. 2 in July 1920.  These are far harder to find today than the first model.


The photo above is Fox Portable No. 2  serial 10017, sent to us years back by Richard Polt, who we understand has sold the machine.  The similarities between this machine and the No. 1 cannot be denied, but Richard tells us that there are numerous small changes all over the machine as compared with the No. 1.  This machine, for example, adds a margin release function to the backspace key.

Fox Typewriter Co. had only made about 8,000 of the Fox Portable No. 1 machines when it made the change to this improved model.

August 27, 1920 -- immediately after this new machine appeared -- the first court case in the series of lawsuits between Corona and Fox took place.  The outcome was favorable to Corona for the moment; Six of the eight patents that Corona had filed complaint on were declared to be valid patents, and of these, five were found to have been infringed by Fox.  An injunction against Fox was granted, who would continue to build machines under a bond while the case dragged on.

After only having manufactured something less than 2,000 of the Fox Portable No. 2 model, the company decided to eliminate the collapsing feature and bring out a third but radically altered portable model, which it did in the first quarter of 1921.


Fox Sterling

The third and final portable model was the Fox Sterling.  This typewriter, according to Richard Polt, is very much of the previous model in concept (for example, the same key lever and type bar mechanism, and the same carriage arrangement) mounted in and on a frame that does not in any way collapse or fold.  These machines are actually technically the Model 3 - this appears on the decals that are mostly hidden behind the upper row of keys.


Above, Fox Sterling serial number s12762, courtesy Peter Weil.  The machine is clearly related to the earlier models, but immediately obvious is the fact that it does not fold.  The logo on the front right is particularly attractive and is seen below in detail.


This typewriter then less resembles the folding Corona 3 with which its maker remained in legal entanglement, and more resembles the National machine at that time being manufactured by Rex Typewriter Company.


The above Fox Sterling, serial number 12688 is unusual among surviving machines in having a foreign keyboard - in this case, Spanish.   In some printed material this final Fox portable typewriter is referred to just as the "Sterling," or else as the "Sterling Fox."

As we noted the Fox Sterling appeared in February 1921.  In March 1921 Fox Typewriter Company was declared in receivership.  Actual advertisements for the Fox Sterling did not appear in trade journals widely until about September 1921.

The interesting sales receipt below is provided by Peter Weil.


The receipt above is certainly very, very late -- it is dated December 23, 1921 and details the sale of "One Portable Fox #3" (the Sterling's official model number, as noted earlier) with an original price of $50.  The trade-in is a Royal No. 5, for which $40 credit is given leaving a balance of $10 to be paid.  The Fox Sterling was guaranteed for one year.

The End

W. A. Papworth was appointed by the court as Receiver and General Manager of the company, which struggled on operating during this bankruptcy.  In March 1922 the trade rags reported that sale of Fox Typewriter Co. looked imminent - supposedly, forces aligned with the Bennington typewriter including William H. Bennington himself were set to buy the company, continue producing both the Fox visible and the Sterling and add in Bennington's own unique syllabic/word printing typewriter.  The agreed value to be paid for the company was $200,000.

By July 1, 1922 this deal had fallen through; the forces aligned with Bennington had failed to raise the capital.  Papworth reported to the bankruptcy court that the operation was losing money, and that unless some sort of measure were taken to improve distribution of the products of the company it would be forced to liquidate. He reported that the factory was "practically at a standstill."  By July 15th the company had reduced its capitalization from $450,000 to $45,000.

The final blows began to hit as by the end of July, the First National Bank of Chicago had been allowed to file a foreclosure suit for nonpayment of interest on a $100,000 mortgage.  At the same time Shaw Association, Ltd. who owned a large amount of Fox Typewriter Co. stock took action to foreclose on another $100,000 mortgage.

In August 1922, various trade and business papers reported that by court order the property was to be sold at foreclosure sale.

Above, extremely unusual all polished aluminum Fox Sterling portable owned by Herman Price, with serial number s12467.    Fox Typewriter Co. had made about 1,000 of the Sterling portables before shutting down for good.

Postscript

The legal action with Corona still had to be played out, and the outcome is reported in the Patent Gazette from November 1922.  I've reviewed the material, and in brief, the summation is as follows:  Fox won back much more ground than it had lost the first time, although it was still found at fault.  In the final adjudication, only two patents were found to have been infringed by Fox; one of them was a patent held by Corona for a separable ribbon drive (Fox was found to have infringed on three claims out of the original seven that Corona made on this patent alone) and the other was a patent generally applicable to folding typewriters.  In all likelihood the Sterling was free and clear of any complications involving these patents, but in point of fact had the company not been bankrupt it still would have had to, in all probability, pay or attempt to pay damages to Corona based upon a consensus of profits made by Fox and perceived damage to business on the part of Corona.  At this point, though, the findings were only a hollow victory for Corona as there was nothing it could get.  The Fox Typewriter Company, originally brought into being in 1898, was gone.


Post-Postscript

The letter seen below was found inside the stationery pocket of our Fox Portable No. 1 which is shown in several photos above.


This letter is dated December 23, 1953 and is on the letterhead of the Douglas M. Hale Typewriter Sales & Service Co.  It is addressed to a "Mrs. Groves," and in it Hale himself writes "this old style little portable typewriter is for you, provided it suits you."  Hale promises to see Mrs. Groves after the holidays to tell her about the machine.  The Christmas stickers on the envelope add a wonderful touch to this piece that gives one little Fox portable a real bit of human interest as it spans more than one lifetime and enriches more than one life.





THANKS TO Peter Weil, Richard Polt, Herman Price, Jim Dax.   Information from Business Equipment Topics, Typewriter Topics, Michigan Manufacturer and Financial Record, Robert D. Fisher Manual of Valuable and Worthless Securities Vol. 6.

Fox Visible Typewriters - An Overview

•This material is condensed and reproduced from an article originally appearing on "Antique Typewriters by Will Davis - Visible Typewriters" which went online in 2006.  That site featured a two page article on the Fox later model "visible" machines.  To meet requirements for a visual primer on these models and to produce some insight on them, this shorter but updated article now appears. Because many of the original illustrations are used, most will not enlarge when clicked.•


FOX VISIBLE TYPEWRITERS -- by Will Davis, with assistance and information from Jim Dax, Peter Weil, Ed Neuert, Herman Price and Richard Polt.

William R. Fox, and Fox Typewriter Co. plant, Grand Rapids, Mich - Ed Neuert


William R. Fox's enterprise in manufacturing typewriters entered the field in 1898 with a largely conventional upstrike machine which quickly earned a reputation for ruggedness and speed.  The timing was a bit late, though, and today collectors do not find a large number of surviving Fox upstrike machines.  Much more plentiful are the "visible" Fox machines; this article provides an introduction and primer.

The Fox Visible machines were announced to the trade in February, 1906.  This was two years after the highly anticipated and well heralded introductions of the L. C. Smith & Bros. standard visible, and the Monarch standard visible.  It was also the same year as Royal introduced an innovative visible priced well below the norm.  The Fox, however, was a true $100 machine intended to go head to head with any other equally priced make on the market.

Perhaps because of problems tooling up to build the machines, the Fox visible machines were not actively marketed until early 1907.  This delay between an official announcement and the widespread marketing of a particular machine was somewhat common among the smaller makers of typewriters.

The Fox incorporated some novel design concepts - not the least of which was its use of a two speed escapement (allowing a setting for normal typists and one for exceptionally fast, steady typists.)  Another oddity was the use of two different lengths of type bar.


Above, patent drawings covering the original style Fox Visible.  The upper shows the key lever / type bar mechanism; the lower shows the mounting rings.  The Fox employed segment shift, as did the still new Monarch and L. C. Smith machines.

Below, a February 1906 advertisement for the Fox Visible (Will Davis collection)


The Fox Visible is most commonly found in one of two "most popular" models -- the No. 23 and the No. 24.  These two were offered at the same time for much of the Fox Visible's production, and differed only in the number of keys (number of characters typed) with a slight price difference.


Above, April 1907 illustration of the Fox No. 24, courtesy Peter Weil.  This is the general appearance of the very earliest Fox visible machines.  These do not have a backspacer.  This illustration is of interest as it shows a No. 24 that appears to have only 43 character keys.  All known No. 24 machines have 44 keys, while all known No. 23 machines have 39 keys.  It is not certain that the No. 24 was ever actually made "one key short" as this illustration appears to depict.

Above, a Fox No. 23 owned by Jim Dax, with serial number 0297 16297.   Other than being a No. 23 this machine matches in all details the advertising cut seen above.  This may indeed be the 297th visible Fox manufactured.

Our next view of the machines is from 1908, via a trade catalog scan provided by Ed Neuert.


Above we see the No. 23 machine - and immediately a change can be seen.  Look at the front frame; a key is protruding through a hole at the front left.  This is the TAB key.  Fox visibles are notorious for having frames broken in this area as the penetration seriously weakens the frame here.    The typewriter has not materially changed from the original introduction about two years prior,


Above, the Fox No. 24 as depicted in Ed Neuert's 1908 trade catalog.  The unique appearance of the Fox visible machines when compared with anything else on the market attracts many collectors.

Note the solid, one piece keytops (black, with white lettering) and elaborate pinstriping.


Far less well known to collectors today are the long carriage models of the Fox visible.  In the 1908 trade catalog, the models are delineated by paper width and carriage width as follows:

No. 23 and No. 24:  Paper width 9.5 inches; writing 7.5 inches
No. 25:  Paper 12 inches; writing 9.5 inches
No. 26:  Paper 14.5 inches; writing 12 inches
No. 27:  Paper 16.5 inches; writing 14 inches
No. 28:  Paper 19 inches; writing 17 inches

All of the wider carriage machines had the same keyboard as the No. 24.  The decimal tabulator shown on the machine depicted above (a No. 28) has actually been found on a Fox No. 4 blind writer acquired by the Davis Bros. and subsequently sold to Herman Price; presently we know of none on a Fox visible.  The different paper table decal on the wide carriage machine should be noted.

The illustration below is from Ed Neuert.  It dates to May 1909 and tells us that the machine had not changed in appearance or design by this time from those shown in the 1908 trade catalog.



The machine above is our Fox No. 24, serial P1355 21355.  This machine matches the above illustration perfectly in all details.  Below, a view of the rear, which is as unusual as the front.


The wonderful book written in 1909 by Carl Mares (included on our reading list) notes that the Fox visible was just beginning to be fitted with a backspacer at the time.  The machine you see above does not have one; if it did, the key would be protruding from the right side of the typewriter's front, above the keyboard.  We have no illustrations from right at the time the backspacer was added.  It might be important to point out that many typewriters at this time were just introducing backspace mechanisms, and today, collectors look hard for L.C. Smith and Underwood standard machines that are old enough not to have a backspace key.

We next see the machine in 1912, again via a trade catalog from Ed Neuert.  This shows the "New" Fox visible line, which was announced to the trade in March, 1912.


In point of fact, we know of very little that could substantially make this machine completely new; it is however improved over previous models in a number of small ways.  Note the back space key on the right side, front.  This machine also has carriage release levers on both sides of the carriage; prior to this the carriage release was only on the left side of the carriage.  The paper table decal has been slightly simplified as can be seen comparing illustrations.

Less easy to see is that the No. 24 has been modified to handle 10.5 inch paper.  On the new machines the key levers had been lightened at the front ends, which was said to give an even lighter touch than earlier machines (already known for a light touch.)  The machine had a new "double bevel" escapement, which replaced the old "two speed" escapement design and concept which had carried over from the original blind writer (upstrike) Fox machines.  The machines had a new, patented design of removable ribbon spool with a conical shape.  The keytops were altered, being a new cemented celluoid double-layer type with dished tops to fit the fingers.

The 1912 lineup is notable also for dropping the No. 23 model and the No. 27 model.  As of this point then, remaining available models were as follows (all 44 keys):

No. 24   Paper 10.5 inches; writing 8.5 inches
No. 25   Paper 12 inches; writing 9.5 inches
No. 26   Paper 14.5 inches; writing 12 inches
No. 28   Paper 19 inches; writing 17 inches

Carriage interchange on the Fox visibles was said to be fairly easy and rapid.

Our next illustration from Ed Neuert dates to 1919, depicting the No. 24 model.


This illustration is quite interesting in that it shows a design variation that is very rarely found on existing Fox visible machines -- the keytops have been altered to a nickel ringed, white legend design with (probably) glass inserts.  This is the final major change to the machine; advertisements begin to show this alteration sometimes, but not in all, 1914 and 1915 images.  From that point on the company was in financial difficulties, and soon became absorbed first with trying to make a portable, and second with lawsuits concerning that portable.

The 1922 Typewriter Topics compendium of typewriter history tells us that after the outbreak of war in Europe in 1914, part of the Fox typewriter plant was closed and that the whole Fox typewriter enterprise was a questionable entity from that point forward.  We know that the entire operation changed hands to a newly financed corporation during this time (November 1915) and that it was eventually shut down completely and liquidated in 1922.

Fox brought out a portable typewriter, the folding Fox No. 1 in 1917 which led to a series of legal actions brought by Corona.  The Fox portables were later made non-folding and also ended in 1922.

(Above, Fox Portable No. 1 serial 1364, Davis Bros. collection)

The portables did not save the company, which had a serious problem already - its standard typewriter was complicated and expensive to manufacture.  A similar fate was said to have befallen the Secor -- another good typewriter that was too expensive to build profitably if sold competitively.  Fox Typewriter Co. knew this, and filed at least two sets of patents whose purpose (clearly stated) was to convert the Fox visible standard machine to a design easier and less expensive to manufacture.


The design above was filed by Fox for patent in 1913, and concerns converting the Fox visible to a simpler design with all type bars of one length.  The key lever at bottom, hinged at the rear of the machine (right side of drawing) imparts motion to an intermediate lever which rotates clockwise as seen here from the left side of the typewriter.  This intermediate lever pulls an intermediate link, attached directly to the type bar.  A decidedly weak point of this design is the coupling between the key lever and intermediate lever, which requires side clips or tangs to ensure the pieces remain in sliding contact.  This design was never built to our knowledge.


The above design for modifying the Fox visible is about a year newer than that above, and incorporates a slotted type bar segment along with a completely revised key lever and type bar mechanism much more well thought out than that previously patented.

In reality, neither of these design changes was applied to the Fox visible even though the company was recapitalized several times and reorganized once.  This author has wondered if the venture into portables, with their higher profit margin, was not an attempt to first enter that market and then produce enough cash to retool the standard machine to reduce its manufacturing cost.  We will never know, of course, but the speculation is interesting.

For Collectors:

Fox visible machines run in serial numbers from 16,000 to about 125,000; the serial is the second of the two numbers.  The No. 23 machine disappears around serial 36,000.  Nickel ringed keytops appear somewhere around serial 110,000.   There were never any heavy, major alterations to the machine over the period during which it was made in terms of design, but rather a number of small improvements and additions.  Essentially the machine can be considered largely unchanged for its entire production run from a mechanical standpoint.

•This concludes our brief look at the Fox visible, standard machines.  CLICK HERE to read about the Fox portables, and the financial troubles that doomed the company•


Thursday, July 16, 2015

Rebuilt Typewriters - A Discussion and Categorization

•Present day typewriter historians continue to be puzzled by various typewriters they encounter which seem not to match established characteristics.  In many cases this is because these machines have been rebuilt through one of a number of avenues.  The old website (now gone) had a considerable amount of information on rebuilt typewriters; because it appears important, we'll reproduce some of that, enhance it, and expand upon it here.•

----------  ----------  ----------

REBUILT TYPEWRITERS were becoming an important market force prior to 1900; because of the fact that office or standard typewriters generally had short contractual lives (under five years, according to information in our archives) before they were removed from operation to be replaced, there were from early days a number of "left over" typewriters.  The instinct of some early dealers was to destroy the trade-ins or take-backs so they did not threaten the new product being sold.  However, this quickly gave way to a vast and complicated universe of buying and selling traded-in, second hand / used machines at prices far, far less than the $100 price of brand new office machines.  It was in these somewhat shady and fluid price zones that rebuilding companies and some big city dealers made their fortunes and provided tens of thousands of rebuilt office typewriters over the many years that typewriters were in general use.

We'll provide some "blocks" of information that will certainly be of use to collectors and historians; anyone attempting to research information on widely produced standard typewriters of any make or model should read and understand all of these sections before attempting to interpret data.  Rebuilt typewriters are likely to insert false data in any block of research.

----------

Why buy a rebuilt typewriter?  In other words, why would someone in those days purchase one of these machines?  The simple answer is PRICE.  Most rebuilt standard machines were offered at more or less half the going price for new machines -- and as various models became more and more out of date, they were offered at lower and lower prices.


Above is a price list insert from what we believe to be a late 1923 or early 1924 rebuilt typewriter catalog published by Young Typewriter Company.  (The company moved in late 1923; the new address is stamped on this printed insert.)  It is important to note that most of the typewriters listed here were introduced between 1908 and 1917, and so were definitely not brand new.  Very notable is the inclusion of the blind-writer Remington No. 6 at a deep discount price of $21.00.  Compare these prices with the $100 for a brand new standard typewriter, and consider that individual who works occasionally in the home printing (say, for a church or just as a side job) or the office manager who needs to get several typewriters inexpensively.   The advantage is obvious.  Excepting the realm of unusual, off brand or "junk" typewriters that existed, this price advantage was held exclusively by vendors of rebuilt typewriters until high quality portable typewriters began to appear on the scene, priced $50 to $65 and which gave those who wished to have a machine in the home an option for a brand new machine that could also be carried about.  This generally did not begin to take hold until well after the end of the First World War; in fact, there were few good portable typewriters on the market until the mid-1920's that could stand up to the use that a well done rebuilt standard could.

(Young Typewriter Company was established in 1911 and appears to have done business through about 1928.)

----------

REBUILT TYPEWRITERS:  LEVELS OF REBUILDING

We can historically identify several brackets or levels of rebuilt typewriter that the collector will encounter today.  Keeping an eye out for these is important, especially in research.

I.  Rebuilt by Original Manufacturer and Upgraded.

This is actually the rarest category; few old typewriters were "improved" significantly in the process of rebuilding.  Normally, the machines were fitted with replacement parts.  However in some rare cases old machines were significantly upgraded.


The typewriter above is one such example.  As we know today, Woodstock Typewriter Company got into the business of rebuilding its own machines (more about that later on) and that's the case with this example.   However, look closely -- what we have here appears at first glance to be a sort of mix up of parts.  In reality this machine is an old Woodstock No. 5 that the factory has enclosed (adding on a front panel, with the WOODSTOCK label, as well as side panels) and has upgraded with a carriage that includes the new see-through window allowing the typist to see the position of the margin stops without tilting or moving the table.  The serial number of this machine is RN15206; Woodstock added on the "R" on front of the serial to indicate Rebuilt.  The serial without the R indicates a No. 5 machine from the middle 1920's -- but this rebuild took place, so far as we can ascertain, most probably between 1947 and 1950.

II.  Rebuilt by Original Manufacturer

Eventually the big makers of typewriters realized that there was a business to be had by rebuilding typewriters, for which (as trade ins) the manufacturers were usually giving some small amount of credit on the buying price.  Woodstock is well known to have entered the rebuilding business itself; the machines carrying the special decal the company applied are common enough.  This appears to have begun in the late 1930's.


The above mid-late 1930's Woodstock typewriter appears normal enough in itself.  But look down along the lower edge of the frame, on the side of the machine toward the rear.




The big Union Typewriter conglomerate got into this business several years before the First World War when it converted the American Writing Machine Company from being a maker of new typewriters (the Caligraph) to a rebuilder of all makes.


The ad above, in my collection, appears actually about actual size.  It dates from 1911 and shows AMWCo as advertising "All makes - all styles - all prices" of rebuilt typewriters.  Naturally, the company shows one of the Union makes in this ad.


This 1930 letter from AWMCo to a customer, in my collection (see above) shows that the company was still in business then, and the letterhead clearly still advertises "Rebuilt Typewriters and Adding Machines."  Some may question AWMCo as "original builder" - we credit this instance as the company was an arm of Union Typewriter, who controlled Remington, Smith Premier, AWMCo, Densmore, Yost, and briefly Pittsburg.

Remington also got into the rebuilding game apart from AWMCo.


Above, Dave's Remington Noiseless 6 as seen in his office.  Collectors should look at this twice - why is this machine finished in crinkled black paint instead of smooth black enamel?  And should this most likely have white keytop inserts?

Looking at the right side shift key gives the answer:


The key insert says "Factory Reconditioned at Remington Noiseless Factory."


The decal on the rear of the typewriter tells us the same thing.  It would seem that Remington had decided that only those that built the Noiseless machines should be rebuilding them!

Let's take a look at a sort of middle example between "Rebuilt by Original Manufacturer" and "Rebuilt by Professional Rebuilder."

IIb.  Rebuilt by Assignee of Original Manufacturer

We can describe two cases of this instance.  In 1921, it was announced that a new rebuilding concern had been incorporated; Regal Typewriter Company had been organized to rebuild and sell typewriters, and one Marcus Harwitz who set up this new company had formerly been the Manager of the Exchanged Machines Department for Royal Typewriter Company.

In April 1922 the new company began to do business selling "Regal Rebuilt" machines -- which were all Royal typewriters.  It soon trademarked its emblem, which can be found only on the rear of a Regal rebuilt Royal.  (Seen below.)

The company immediately opened a New York headquarters and a Chicago office.  There is not much more to report about this company from trade literature -- but we have long known here that the company had an exclusive arrangement to officially rebuild Royal machines.  We have found the proof.

Testimony in a lawsuit between a typewriter dealer and Regal Typewriter Company shows us the fact that Regal had the responsibility (as would have the Exchanged Machines Department before this) of doing something with all the machines traded in to Royal dealers.  It is now apparent that what Regal was doing most likely was rebuilding the Royals that were traded back in to Royal on new models, and was selling off the other makes (surely at wholesale) to other buyers.  (These would be other rebuilders.)  This ensures a path to get the rebuilt Royals to market with high quality, and ensures some small cash flow (profit, that is) on the traded in machines of all other makes.

What Royal had effectively done was put the rebuilding at arm's length... but not too far away.  Regal Typewriter Company continued in this same business until April 16, 1975 when it was merged into Litton Business Systems, Inc. (information from US Patent and Trademark Office.)

In the early 1920's, L. C. Smith &  Bros. signed an exclusive arrangement with the Smith Typewriter Sales Co. through Harry A. Smith to make that company the exclusive rebuilder of L. C. Smith & Bros. typewriters.  We do not know how long this lasted; we also do not know if Smith Typewriter Sales was handling all machines traded in to L. C. Smith dealers, or was just rebuilding L. C. Smith machines for resale.   This does however constitute a second known case of rebuilding by assignment of original manufacturer.

III.  Rebuilt by Professional Factory

By the 1910-1915 time period there were perhaps a dozen important firms doing business (mostly out of Chicago and New York) entirely in rebuilt typewriters.  These firms never manufactured new machines; they always took in second hand or used machines, reconditioned them, and sold them through a number of paths.

•Some were sold direct by mail, through magazine advertisements, to private individuals or offices
•Some were sold through large catalog distributors like Montgomery-Ward, Sears Roebuck and others
•Some were sold to typewriter shops which did not have an affiliation with a major brand selling new typewriters, but which wished to get into selling standard machines
•Some were sold by agents, who were assigned territories (a method also used by many big makers at various points in history, and by most of the small, or "off brand" makers of brand new machines.)
•Many were sold overseas (i.e. outside the U.S.)

The best known of these to collectors was Harry A. Smith, who originally from 1911 did business under that name in Chicago but whose rebuilt typewriter business was later titled "Smith Typewriter Sales Co."  This company (like others) obtained typewriters from any number of places, any number of ways; for years the company advertised not only machines for sale in various magazines, but also placed classified ads looking for typewriters "in batches of 10 to 100" that it would buy -- and then of course rebuild and sell any number of ways.


Above, typical Harry A. Smith advertisement in Davis collection; dated to 1914.  Click to enlarge, and note the price under $50 for this standard typewriter.  There is another fact about this advertisement which is important but will be pointed out later.

Eventually there were big factories (such as that of ITE or International Typewriter Exchange) which were turning out large numbers of rebuilt typewriters post-World War 2 for sale through major catalog houses such as Montgomery-Ward.  These typewriters were completely overhauled and rebuilt, but were repainted in a much more modern looking color.  A fairly typical example is seen below.


The Underwood No. 5 seen above is finished in overall gray crinkle paint, has no front frame decals and no beaded lines, and has only the red decal "Underwood" on the paper table.  In fact, typewriters painted just like this of all makes and models were distributed through catalogs (and other venues, we are sure, including dealerships perhaps) for a number of years.  Below is a small scan from a Fall / Winter 1961 Montgomery Ward catalog showing rebuilt machines for sale.


Note the simple decals on all of the machines.  The prices are not under $50 any more -- but it should be noted that manual standard typewriters by this point were well above the pre-war $100 mark (the Royal FP's basic price in 1960 was $225.00.)  Thus, the machines seen here were still just about half the price of a new standard typewriter, generally.


Above is the Underwood SX-100 model as offered rebuilt.  Note the gray crinkle paint and simple Underwood decal - both features match the actual Underwood No. 5 seen earlier.

IV.  Rebuilt by Dealer / Local Shop

Of course many dealerships in large and small cities had some business at whatever level taking in machines and then reselling them.  In some instances the rebuilding included just painting over worn places on the typewriter frame; but in others, the dealers were able to apply and bake crinkle paint that had a factory finish even if none of the decals or the color were normal for that machine.


The above L. C. Smith Silent machine was in all probability dealer rebuilt.  The machine has a good professional paint finish, a set of comfort rubber keytop covers, but only the name SMITH above the keyboard.  The machine's features suggest rebuilding after World War 2, and maybe into the late 50's.   Of course, when brand new, this machine would have been painted in smooth black enamel and had far different decals.

----------

DOING BUSINESS WITH TYPEWRITER REBUILDERS

One could find an ad for rebuilt typewriters almost anywhere in the early years of the 20th century.  All you had to do was look.

Sometimes the first thing you'd see would be a mail-in offer card such as below.


The card induces the prospective buyer with low down payment, low payment prices thereafter, and overall a price half that of the original maker's retail price.  The prospective buyer is invited to send in the card and receive a big catalog.  Below is the front cover of what you got if you sent in THIS CARD.


The spectacular front cover of the International Typewriter Exchange catalog.  This catalog, by the way, is in my collection and was published in 1938.

We open the catalog and see the frontispiece below (click to enlarge) wherein ITE founder William F. Clausing introduces himself and his business to us.  Be sure to read this great ad copy.


In its earliest years, ITE did actually advertise that it sold all makes of typewriter.  However by this time Clausing has decided only to obtain and rebuild what he calls the "Five Big Makes" -- Underwood, Royal, L.C. Smith, Woodstock, and Remington.  Let's take a look at a couple.



At this point, it's time to make what might be the most important point of this entire post on rebuilt typewriters.  Clausing makes it clear (as do many other rebuilders in their catalogues over the years) that he refinishes and repaints every single machine.  As we can see, these machines very closely match what they looked like when originally manufactured.  As a result, it is often the case if no "rebuilt by" decal or keytop insert is present that YOU CANNOT TELL A WELL REBUILT MACHINE FROM THE ORIGINAL SIMPLY BY APPEARANCE.  In fact so many machines were sold over the years after thorough rebuilding the chances that a "perfect condition" pre-1930's typewriter you may be looking at was actually rebuilt and re-decaled are much higher than ten percent.  Below is the rear cover of the ITE catalogue with one more offer.  Note that the appearance of the machine offered matches the original.  However, many ITE machines do have a large circular decal on the front, with the company name indicating the machine was rebuilt.


International Typewriter Exchange is still in business today 100 years later in 2015, offering rebuilt modern typewriters and other machines.  The company notes on its website that it eventually got machines into catalogues from Sears, Montgomery Ward, Speigel and Alden's, and did sell rebuilt typewriters not just to individuals direct (as in the earlier days) but also to typewriter dealers nationally.  This company was one of the biggest players in rebuilt typewriters from its founding in 1915.

Once you decided to purchase the machine, you sent away a form for it that included your first or down payment and typically two or three "references" that would act as credit checks.  These were acted upon, as you can see in a rare letter below.


The above letter in my collection is an actual credit reference letter mailed out in 1909 by the Rebuilt Typewriter Company, in Chicago.  Be sure to click and enlarge the photo to read the letter.  The credit desired is "for about 50 dollars," in other words the going price of a top notch rebuilt machine.

(Note at the top J. E. Grady - this, for early historians, is "Grady the Typewriter Man," who started this company originally in 1905 as Chicago Office Outfitters; Grady already had good knowledge of second hand and rebuilt typewriters from previous retail experience and included these in this new personal venture.  By mid 1906 he had made the decision to focus all business on rebuilt typewriters and the company was renamed Rebuilt Typewriter Company.  Grady later made the claim that this company originated the business model and approach for all later typewriter rebuilding firms - a claim, given the relatively early date of his company and his statements in a letter to Typewriter Topics in 1907, that has some merit, although as we'll see there were other firms in the business in 1909.  Grady prior to launching his own company had been Chicago Assistant Branch Manager for Oliver Typewriter Company.  He left the business in 1915 to work in automobiles.)

Naturally, once you obtained the machine and it proved satisfactory, you continued payments until the title was passed to you.   Many private individuals and small organizations obtained solid, dependable machines at low cost by buying rebuilt typewriters over the years - as did thrifty office managers who wished to equip an office less expensively through the use of these machines.

DISHONESTY, LOW QUALITY, NO WARRANTY COVERAGE, AND THE FTC

The big makers of standard machines -- even if they were dealing in rebuilt machines themselves -- frequently railed against the rebuilt machines as substandard and/or a poor substitute.  While most of the early rebuilding firms were honest (J. E. Grady, above, swore by the complete honesty of his business as a cornerstone of its success) some were not.

Look back up at the Harry A. Smith advertisement seen earlier and read it once more -- you'll notice something interesting.  NEVER ONCE does that advertisement say that the machines being offered are second hand, rebuilt machines, but they are.  This practice, not just limited to Harry A. Smith, coupled with the low quality of some second hand machines led to a series of Federal Trade Commission actions beginning about 1916 which essentially boxed the rebuilt typewriter industry into a position of honesty and quality.  This in no way damaged the business model overall, although it certainly would have driven out the more marginal and less quality-focused firms and individuals.

Harry A. Smith also engaged in the further deceptive practice of redesignating machines as "Harry A. Smith" machines, with somewhat random model numbers, and selling them under his own name rebuilt.  This practice was not specifically called out by the FTC but is highly deceptive nonetheless.

Federal Trade Commission Complaint No. 36, filed February 1, 1918 (FTC vs. Harry A. Smith) had listed as causes "Stifling and suppressing competition in the sale of typewriters by publishing and causing to be published false and misleading advertisements designed and calculated to cause customers and prospective customers to believe that the repaired and rebuilt typewriters of standard makes offered for sale at a price of less than one-half that charged by the makers of such machines are new typewriters in alleged violation of Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act."

At the same time as the above action was filed, other actions were filed against Dearborn Typewriter Company, Metro Typewriter Company and Block & Emporium.

Later Smith ad using word "reconstructed."

The FTC then invited the major typewriter manufacturers to its headquarters and investigated the practices, and the requirements for rebuilt typewriters.  The results were published in 1920.

From the 1920 Federal Trade Commission Annual Report:

"Rebuilt Typewriter Industry.  The reputation gained for properly and thoroughly rebuilt typewriting machines yielding a comparatively high percentage of efficiency was found on investigation by the Commission to have induced widespread unfair deceptive practices.

To simultaneously correct the unfair practices complained of, the industry upon the invitation from the Commission assembled and at its request defined and denounced in open meeting those practices which in the judgement and experience of the industry were considered unfair methods of competition.

The term 'rebuilt' or 'remanufactured' typewriters was first defined substantially as follows:  Machines in which all substantial parts have been removed, examined, cleaned and tested; defective parts replaced; type properly aligned; unnecessary lost motion eliminated; tarnished blued and nickeled parts reblued and renickeled; and the parts of which have been reassembled, inspected and adjusted by competent workmen.

The industry then defined and denounced the use of the following practices as unfair methods of competition:

A.  The selling of rebuilt or remanufactured typewriters as new machines.
B.  The selling as rebuilt or remanufactured typewriters machines which have been given only superficial repairs or such repairs as are necessary to enable a machine to be operated without being rebuilt or remanufactured as defined herein.
C.  Guaranteeing of a machine by a dealer who is not a competent workman or who does not employ a skilled repair or service man, and who cannot keep the guaranteed machines in repair or furnish service in answer to a customer's complaint.
D.  The guaranteeing of machines sold on mail order unless guaranty (sic) expressly provides that a local dealer shall make service repairs at the expense of the mail order dealer or provides for the return of the machine to the mail order dealer for guaranteed service repairs."

MONTGOMERY WARD 1961 - REBUILT TYPEWRITERS

We've already seen two scans from a 1961 Montgomery Ward catalog.  Let's see how this company was advertising its rebuilt typewriters and compare that with the 1920 FTC mandate on the industry.. To do that, we'll look at the header for Ward's rebuilt typewriters....

"Reconditioned Typewriters for Three-Way Economy!

1.  Cut Overhead   2.  Big Machine Competence at Low Price   3.  Utility on Easy Terms

-- What does "Reconditioned Typewriter" mean at Ward's?

1.  Factory Disassembled - Every typewriter is disassembled at the factory for full reconditioning.  Working parts are inspected for wear.

2.  Scientifically Cleaned - Disassembled machines are chemically washed of all dust, sediment, dirt.  Clean parts ensure smooth operation.

3.  All Worn Parts Replaced - All broken and excessively worn parts are replaced with new parts.  All rubber parts are also new.

4.  New Modern Plastic Key Tops - Old key tops replaced with new plastic tops for a handsome appearance, more comfort in typing.

5.  New Baked Enamel Crackle Finish - All painted parts are refinished to protect machine, add to its good looks.

6.  Quality Workmanship - Every reconditioned typewriter sold here assembled, rigidly inspected by skilled, factory-trained mechanics.

Judging from the description, I'd say Montgomery Ward was right in line with the requirements for honesty and excellence laid out by the industry and adopted by the FTC in 1920!  It's likely that the work was being done by ITE.

----------

As you can see, the rebuilt typewriter industry was vast and long-lived.  It produced many thousands of good, reliable machines -- and a few notorious ones.  It competed so fiercely with the new machine business that the industry both joined it, and had it regulated into compliance.  It produced a large number of machines that for all purposes cannot be distinguished from the original article when new -- and it also produced some very odd looking machines seemingly having their design quite out of place with their decor.

We have more information to share with you on rebuilt typewriters, but will share that in a second post - leaving this one as the primary post with the "must have" information on rebuilt typewriters.

8:30 PM Eastern July 16, 2015